AUTOMATION IN DISTRIBUTION

DAS Abstract
electric power distribution system plays a crucial role in delivering
electricity to consumers within the power grid electric power utilities are extensively adopting the computer-aided monitoring, control and management of electrical power distribution system to supply many improvements within the consumer service increasingly. Therefore, research and development activities are being administered extensively to automate the electrical power distribution system which are applying
recent advancements within the area of data Technology (IT) and data communication system. Flexible control of distribution systems, which may be wont to enhance efficiency, reliability, and quality of electricity services is implemented by the automation within the distribution field. Nowadays worldwide research and developments are emphasized on the world of communication technologies revolution and application of IEC61850 protocol within the distribution system automation and check out to lead it to higher intelligence and efficiency. during this paper, a quick overview about the distribution system automation is presented. the knowledge given during this paper is useful to electrical power distribution utilities and academicians involved in research
and development activities within the area of power distribution automation.



1. Introduction
The word automation is defining as doing a specific task automatically during a sequence with faster operation rate. this needs the applying of microprocessor systems, communication networks, and a few relevant software programming all at once. Automatic monitoring, protecting, and controlling switching operations using intelligent electronic devices to revive power company during fault by sequential events and maintain the operating conditions back to normal operations is a good definition of application of automation in distribution power grid level.
Nowadays, thanks to the progress and improvement within the communication technologies, distribution automation system (DAS) is enhanced to a highly reliable, flexible, and self-healing system within the power network and related subsystems, which
provides a rapid, real-time, and appropriate actions to the events besides it’s a remote controller and OS of substations and feeder equipment. There are several reasons why we’d like distribution automation systems (DAS). Up to now, the electrical power industry has been enhanced extensively in both quantity and quality causes and social demands for better services. the most function of DAS is that the remote of switches to locate, isolate the fault and restore the
service, when a fault occurs within the power distribution line. Nowadays, distribution automation system (DAS) results in enhancement and improvement within the efficiency as well as reliability and quality of power distribution. Now there’s an excellent amount of concerns about improving reliability thanks to the implementation of performance-
based rates and improving power quality thanks to its impact on sensitive loads [1].
Further, specific tools that require attention for implementation of advanced distribution automation (ADA) include tools for cost/benefit evaluation, system analysis,and reliability evaluation [2].
The distribution automation system (DAS) is defined as a system that permits an electric utility to remotely monitor, coordinate, and operate distribution components, during a real-time mode from remote locations by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) [3]. The distribution automation system (DAS) is predicated on an integrated technology, which involves gathering data and analyzing information for
making control decisions, implementing the acceptable control decisions within the field, and also verifying that the specified result’s achieved [4]. the situation , from
where control decisions are initiated, is usually called distribution center
(DCC) [5].After this brief introduction, the advantages and challenges of the distributed automation system are discussed. the opposite parts of this paper are assigned to the areas of implementation the distributed automation system, technical challenges, functional
requirements, and communications protocols needed in such systems. Hence this paper is an appropriate and brief review about the distribution system automation. An Overview of Automation in Distribution Systems

2 Benefits and Challenges of Distribution Automation
Distribution automation function provides both benefits and challenges within the control area of the distribution systems. These benefits and therefore the challenges are closely and mostly interweaved and therefore the real and complete benefits aren’t access-
ible until a number of the challenges are overcome specially the financial
challenges and waiting to overcome these challenges means missing out on a number of the benefits—not doing anything can often be worse than doing something. Therefore, the main case to distribution automation is evaluating the balance of benefits versus challenges, including the “lost opportunity” risks of doing nothing. No one approach is perfect for a utility or its customers. Some distribution automation functions are more beneficial to a couple of feeders in one utility, for example, volt/var control in an optimal state, while other functions are often more beneficial in other utilities, as an example fault detection, isolation, and repair res-
toration and a few distribution automation functions are more beneficial to different types of customers, like certain industries.
For certain industries, harmonic minimization and power quality are very crucial while of virtually no benefit to the foremost of the residential customers. Society can also benefit often indirectly but sometimes directly.
2.1 Stakeholders in Distribution Automation
The benefits of distribution automation are often assigned into three stakeholders: utility, customer, and societal. Societal benefits are often harder to quantify, but can be equally critical within the whole benefits of a specific function.
2.2 Major Excellences of Distribution Automation
The use-case scenarios and therefore the primary DA functions are evaluated for the various types of benefits which will be provided. Five sorts of advantages are explained for each benefit category (utility, customer, and society):
• Direct financial profits: stable and lower costs, avoided costs, and pricing
options for patrons are included during this section.
• Power reliability and power quality: including decreased number and length of blackouts, decreased number of transient blackouts, “cleaner” power, and management of distributed generation together with load management and/or microgrids.
• Safety and security: including increased visibility into unsafe or insecure situations, improvement of physical plant and cyber security, privacy protection,and energy independence.
• Energy efficiency: including decreased energy utilization, attenuated demand during peak hours, reduced energy losses, and therefore the potential to use “efficiency” as the same to “generation” in power grid operations.
• Energy environment and conservation: including decreasing the released
amount of any pollutant like greenhouse gases, decreasing generation from
inefficient energy sources, and increasing the utilization of renewable energies. In some advantages, exclusively those which directly reduce costs for utilities, customers also “benefit” from either lower tariffs or avoiding excess tariffs,although the connection might not be direct. Societal benefits are often harder to quantify and calculate, but are often equally serious in evaluating the general profits of a certain function.
The qualitative advantages associated with each of the functions are often altered into quantitative values, which mean dollars for the available “hard” profits and estimated value for “soft” advantages. However, this alteration can only occur when specific, detailed use cases are produced from the functions, since only then the numbers are often specified. These quantitative values can then be utilized in actual business cases. Nonetheless, basic formulas are often expressed for instance how such
conversions might be made.
2.3 Major Technical Challenges of Distribution Automation
The major technical challenges for distribution automation functions include the following:
• equipment : Electronic equipment covers all field equipments which
is computer-based or microprocessor-based, including controllers, remote terminal units (RTUs), intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), laptops utilized in the field, handheld devices, data concentrators, etc. the particular power equipment, such as switches, capacitor banks, or breakers, are often included during this list, because the facility equipments and its controller equipment are
packaged together, but the most focus is on the control and knowledge aspects of the equipments.
• Communication systems: Communication systems cover not only the media (e.g., fiber optical cables, microwave, GPRS, multiple-address radio (MAS), satellite, WiFi, twisted pair wires, etc.), but also the various sorts of 
communication protocols (e.g., Ethernet, TCP/IP, DNP, IEC 61850, IEC 61850-lite for narrow band, Web Services, VPNs, etc.). It also arrests the eye com-
munications cyber security matters.
• Data management: Data management covers all aspects of gathering, analyzing, saving, and preparing data to users and applications, including the matters of data identification, validation, accuracy, updating, time-tagging, consistency across databases, etc. Data managing methods which work well for small amounts of data can often fail or become too onerous for giant amounts of knowledge —a situation common in distribution automation and customer information.
• Systems integration: System integration covers the networking and exchanges of information among multiple different systems. the most issues include interoperability of interconnected systems, cyber security, access control, data identity across systems, messaging protocols, etc.

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