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Generator and Motor

Generator and Motor

In electricity generation, a generator may be a device that converts mobility (mechanical energy) into electric power to be used in associate external circuit. Sources of energy embrace steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, combustion engines and even hand cranks. the primary magnetic force generator, the chemist disk, was fabricated in 1831 by British somebody Faraday.

Terminology

Electromagnetic generators be one in all 2 broad classes, dynamos and alternators.

  • Dynamos generate pulsing electricity through the use of a electrical switch
  • Alternators generate alternating current

Mechanically a generator consists of a rotating half and a stationary half

  • Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine
  • Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine, which surrounds the rotor

One of these components generates a field of force, the opposite features a wire winding during which the dynamic field induces an electrical current.

Field winding or field magnets (PMs): The field manufacturing part of AN electrical machine. The field of the generator or generator will be provided by either wire windings referred to as field coils or permanent magnets. Electrically excited generators includes AN excitation system to regulate the sector winding flux. A generator exploitation permanent magnets (PMs) is typically referred to as a generator, or static magnet synchronous generators (PMSMs).

Armature: The power-producing part of an electrical machine. during a generator, alternator, or generator the coil windings generate the electrical current, that provides power to associate external circuit.
The coil is on either the rotor or the stator coil, counting on the planning, with the sphere coil or magnet on the opposite half.

Electric motor

An electric motor is associate electrical machine that converts current into energy. an electrical generator operates within the reverse direction, changing energy into current.
Most electrical motors operate through the interaction between the motor’s force field and winding currents to get force. In bound applications, like in regenerative braking with traction motors,

electrical motors is employed in reverse as generators to recover energy that may somewhat be lost as heat and friction  Electric motors is powered by DC (DC) sources, like from batteries, automobiles or rectifiers, or by alternating current(AC) sources, like an influence grid, inverters or generators.
General-purpose motors with normal dimensions and characteristics give convenient mechanical power for industrial use. the most important electrical motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching a hundred megawatts. electrical motors could also be classified by concerns like power supply sort, internal construction, application and kind of motion output. Electric motors manufacture linear or rotary force (torque) and may be distinguished from devices like magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion however don’t generate usable mechanical force, that square measure severally referred to as actuators and transducers.

Components

Rotor

In an electrical motor, the moving half is that the rotor, that turns the shaft to deliver the mechanical power. The rotor sometimes has conductors set into it that carry currents, that act with the flux of the mechanical device to get the forces that flip the shaft. instead, some rotors carry permanent magnets, and also the mechanical device holds the conductors.

Bearings

The rotor is supported by bearings, which permit the rotor to show on its axis. The bearings area unit successively supported by the motor housing. The motor shaft extends through the bearings to the surface of the motor, wherever the load is applied. as a result of the forces of the load area unit exerted on the far side the outer bearing, the load is said to be overhung.

Stator

The stator coil is that the stationary a part of the motor’s magnetic attraction circuit and typically consists of either windings or permanent magnets. The stator coil core is formed from several thin metal sheets, referred to as laminations. Laminations are wont to reduce energy losses that may result if a solid core were used.

Air gap

The distance between the rotor and stator coil is termed the air gap. The air gap has vital effects, and is usually as tiny as possible, as an oversized gap encompasses a sturdy negative impact on performance. it’s the most supply of the low power issue at that motors operate. The magnetizing current will increase with the air gap. For this reason, the air gap ought to be nominal. terribly tiny gaps could cause mechanical issues additionally to noise and losses.

Windings

Windings are wires that are set in coils, typically wrapped around a laminated thereforeft iron core so on type magnetic poles once energized with current.
Electric machines are available in 2 basic magnet field pole configurations: salient- and nonsalient-pole configurations. within the salient-pole machine the pole’s field of force is created by a winding wound round the pole below the pole face. within the nonsalient-pole, or distributed field, or round-rotor, machine, the winding is distributed in pole face slots.A shaded-pole motor encompasses a winding around a part of the pole that delays the section of the field of force for that pole.
Some motors have conductors that carries with it thicker metal, like bars or sheets of metal, typically copper, instead aluminium. These area unit typically high-powered by magnetism induction.

Commutator

A commutator could be a mechanism wont to switch the input of most DC machines and sure AC machines. It consists of slip-ring segments insulated from one another and from the shaft.

The motor’s coil current is equipped through stationary brushes up-to-date with the revolving electrical switch, that causes needed current reversal, associated applies power to the machine in an best manner because the rotor rotates from pole to pole.In absence of such current reversal, the motor would brake to a stop. In light-weight of improved technologies within the electronic-controller, sensorless-control, induction-motor, and permanent-magnet-motor fields, externally-commutated induction and permanent-magnet motors are displacing electromechanically-commutated motors.

Motor supply

A DC motor is usually provided through connective switch as represented on top of. AC motors’ commutation are often either connective switch or outwardly commutated kind, are often fixed-speed or variable-speed management kind, and might be synchronous or asynchronous kind. Universal motors will run on either AC or DC.

Motor control

Fixed-speed controlled AC motors are given direct-on-line or soft-start starters.
Variable-speed controlled AC motors area unit given a spread of various power electrical converter, variable-frequency drive or electronic electrical switch technologies.
The term electronic electrical switch is typically related to self-commutated brushless DC motor and switched reluctance motor applications.

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