Autonomous Vehicle Technology

Autonomous technology has the potential to substantially influence safety, congestion, energy use and ultimately land use.

Conventional driving does not only entail costs for the driver

(e.g. fuel, depreciation, insurance), but also significant external costs,

or “negative externalities” in other people. For example, each additional controller increases congestion for all other controllers and increases the possibility of another driver having an accident. These externalities

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they were estimated at around 13 cents per mile. If a hypothetical driver drives 10,000 miles, he charges $ 1,300

others, in addition to the costs she herself bears. AV technology has the

possibility of substantially reducing the costs incurred by the driver e

these negative externalities,

Although the frequency of crashes has gradually decreased in

These incidents remain a serious public health problem in the United States.

There have been over 5.3 million road traffic accidents in the United States

States in 2011, causing over 2.2 million injuries and 32,000

dead, in addition to billions of dollars in private and social costs. Globally, the figures are much higher.

AV technology can drastically reduce the frequency of accidents.

The Institute for Road Safety Insurance (IIHS) has estimated that if

all Autonomous vehicles were equipped with lane departure and lane warning systems,

assistance for the side view (blind spot) and adaptive projectors, almost a third

Accidents and deaths could be avoided (IIHS, 2010). Automatic

Braking when the car detects an obstacle will likely also reduce a significant number of rear collisions. Technologies that allow

the car is likely to be primarily responsible for driving (Level 4)

Reduce error statistics because controller failure is responsible for most errors. This is especially true given that 39 percent of the

Fatal accidents in 2011 resulted in alcohol consumption by one of the drivers. the

The general benefits for the social welfare of Automomous vehicles that collide less frequently are

significant for both the United States and globally and many of these

the proceeds will go to those other buyers of autonomous vehicles.

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Effect on mobility

AV technology will also increase the mobility of those who are currently

unable or unwilling to drive. Level 4 AV technology, when the Autonomous vehicle does not require a human driver, would allow transportation of

the blind, the disabled or those too young to drive. The advantages for these

the groups would include independence, reduction of social isolation and

access to essential services. Currently, some of these services are provided by public transport agencies or paratransit, but each of these alternatives has significant disadvantages. Mass transportation generally requires a fixed service

paths that may not serve the people they live and work in. paratransit

services are expensive because they require a trained and salaried human

driver. Since these costs are generally borne by the taxpayers, in replacement

cheaper VAs for paratransit services have the potential to improve

Social status.

Effect on traffic congestion and its costs

Level 3 or higher AV technology is likely to decrease substantially

The cost of congestion, borne by the occupants of the Autonomous vehicles

other activities. These reductions in congestion costs will benefit

individual AV operators. On the other hand, reductions or increases

In the same congestion there are externalities that will affect all road users.

A reduction in the cost of driving can lead to an increase in the overall Autonomous vehicle

miles traveled (VMT), which can increase effective congestion, but

technology can also allow higher performance on roads because

more efficient Autonomous vehicle operation and reduced accident delays.

Therefore, the overall effect of AV technology on congestion is uncertain.

Land use

As noted above, AV technology of level 3 or higher will likely decline

the cost of time in a car because the driver will be able to participate

alternative activities Another effect of this could be to increase the traveler’s willingness to travel longer distances to and from work. This

It could cause people to locate further away from the urban core. Just like him

The emergence of the car led to the emergence of suburbs and suburbs, therefore

The introduction of AV could lead to a more dispersed low density

land use patterns surrounding metropolitan regions.

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Effect on energy and emissions

The overall effect of AV technology on energy use and pollution is

uncertain, but it seems likely that both will decrease.

First, AV technology can improve fuel economy by improving it

4–10 percent when accelerating and decelerating more evenly than

A human driver. Further improvements could be achieved by reducing

distance between vehicles and greater road capacity. A platoon

of close AVs that stop or slow down less often look like

train, allowing lower peak speeds (improving fuel consumption) but higher

actual speeds (improved travel time). Over time, such as the frequency of

Accidents are reduced, cars and trucks could be much lighter. This

would further increase fuel economy

While the futurists have imagined vehicles that drive themselves

decades, research in AV technology can be divided into three phases.

From 1980 to 2003, university research centers

worked on two visions of vehicle automation. The former were automated

road systems where relatively “stupid” vehicles depended on the road

infrastructure to guide them. Other groups worked in AV

It does not require special routes.

Current state of technology

Fully autonomous Google vehicles have enhanced more

500,000 miles without an accident attributable to automation.

Advanced sensors to gather information about the world, more and more

sophisticated algorithms to process sensor data and control the vehicle,

and the computational power to perform them in real time has made this possible

Level of development

In general, robotic systems, including AV, use a “sense of action plan”

design. To detect the environment, AVs use a combination of

sensors, including lidar (light and range detection), radar, cameras,

ultrasound and infrared. A combination of sensors can complement each other and compensate for any weaknesses in any type of

sensor. While robotic systems are very good at collecting data

the environment, making sense of that data is probably the most difficult part of developing an ultra reliable AV.

Role of telematics and communications

The transfer of data to and from moving vehicles should perform a

Important role in AV development in various ways. First, vehicles can use cloud-based resources. For example, AVs can use continuously updated “maps” which are based in part on sensor data from other vehicles. Likewise, if a vehicle’s sensors didn’t work properly, it could be

able to rely in part on the sensors of another vehicle. Second, the federal

The government supported dedicated short-haul development

Communication applications (DSRC) that would allow V2V and V2I

communications and reserved the electromagnetic spectrum for this

use. Third, almost all the stakeholders we talked to have noticed

inevitable need for software updates, which will require some form of

Finally, many stakeholders believe that more and more

Sophisticated infotainment content can occupy the occupants

when it is no longer necessary to drive full time and that this content

can increase the demand for AV technology.

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Rules and Regulations

Government regulations and technical standards are political tools used to deal with safety, health, the environment and other public aspects.

Concerns regulations are mandatory requirements developed by policy makers that are specified by law and that the government can apply. The standards, on the contrary, are engineering criteria developed by

technology community that specifies how a product should be designed

or how it should work.

Both standards and regulations will play important roles in

emergency and development of AV technology.

NHTSA is the primary federal security regulator, and generally

promulgates the federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSS) that they specify

performance standards for a wide range of safety components, including

Specific crash test performance. NHTSA can also issue withdrawals and influence the market through its new car evaluation program. However, it has no jurisdiction over the operation of cars, vehicle actions

owners, maintenance, repairs or modifications that vehicle owners can make.

Voluntary standards can also play an important role in

standardize security, ensure system compatibility and facilitate some of them

complex human-computer interaction problems during standardization

methods with which vehicles operate.

Potential effects on traffic congestion costs

Contrary to the remaining uncertainty about the effects of VA on

traffic congestion technology seems almost certain to offer significant results

benefits in terms of reducing costs associated with traffic congestion,

in particular with regards to levels 3 and 4 of automation.

Traffic congestion imposes a variety of social costs, including

waste of time, excessive fuel consumption, greater local air emission

pollutants and greenhouse gases, driver stress, decreased quality of

reduced life and economic efficiency. While many of these costs are

difficult to quantify, it is clear that the total costs associated with congestion are significant.

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