General Objectives
1. Understand and learn about automation manage structures and varieties of automation manipulate structures.
2. Learn approximately the forms of manipulate system pneumatic manage systems, hydraulic control structures and electric control gadget.
Specific Objectives;
At the quit of this chapter, student have to be able to:
1. Define the Automation Control System
2. States the need of Automation Control System within the enterprise
3. States of the Fixed Automation / Hard-Wire Control System
four. Differentiate between Fixed Automation with Programmable Automation.
5. State the fundamental principles of pneumatic manage systems, hydraulic manage systems and electric manage structures
6. Classification of pneumatic manipulate structures, hydraulic manipulate systems and electric manage systems.
7. Distinguish among the pneumatic manage machine, hydraulic control gadget and electrical manage structures
In today’s fast-shifting, highly competitive commercial global, a enterprise need to be flexible, fee effective and efficient if it needs to survive. In the method and production industries, this has led to a remarkable call for for commercial control structures/ automation in an effort to streamline operations in terms of speed, reliablity and product output. Automation plays an increasingly critical role inside the global economic system and in day by day experience. Automation is the use of manipulate structures and facts technology to lessen the want for human work within the manufacturing of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step past mechanization. Whereas mechanization supplied human operators with equipment to help them with the muscular necessities of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well.
What is Automation Control System?
Automation Control System – system this is able to manipulate a process with minimum human help or without manual and have the capacity to initiate , adjust, action display or measures the variables within the procedure and forestall the process with the intention to gain the desired output.
The major objective of Automation Control System used within the industry are:
1. To increase productivity
2. 2. To enhance first-class of the product
3. 3. Control manufacturing value
There Are Three (3) Types Of The Control System Based On Supply :
a) Pneumatic Control Systems
b) Hydraulic Control System
c) Electrical Control System
a) Pneumatic Control System
• Pneumatic manage gadget is a device that makes use of compressed air to produce power / strength to carry out any task
• Pneumatic structures observed in many industrial structures consisting of food enterprise, petrochemical and industrial involves robotics.
• Pneumatic structures requires: i. Compressed air deliver ii. Control valve iii. Connecting tube iv. Transducer
• Pneumatic manipulate machine may be controlled manually and automatically.

B) Hydraulic Control System
• Hydraulic manage device is a machine that uses fluid to generate energy/energy
. • The hydraulic system used inside the automobile industry which includes strength systems, braking systems, cranes, automobile jack, satellite and others.
• The fluid used is oil.
• The hydraulic system requires:
a) Hydraulic fluid supply
b) Control Valve
c) Cylinder
• Hydraulic manage machine can be controlled manually and automatically

Basic block diagram of an automated hydraulic manipulate system by Manual /PLC
c) Electrical Control System
• A control gadget that makes use of an electric cutting-edge; either direct contemporary (DC) or current shuttle (AC) as a supply of supply.
• Electrical Control Systems Generally requires: a) Electricity (DC) or (AC) b) Input elements (switches, sensors, transducer, valves, electronic components, etc.) c) Output elements (motor, lights, etc.)
d) Extension cable
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Automation Control In Industry
The major benefits of automation are:
• Replacing human operators in responsibilities that involve difficult physical work.
• Replacing humans in responsibilities finished in risky environments (i.E. Fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
• Performing obligations which can be beyond human skills of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
• Economy improvement: Automation might also improve in financial system of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, whilst an corporation invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a country or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan within the twentieth Century.
• Reduces operation time and work managing time significantly. The principal disadvantages of automation are:
• Unemployment fee increases because of machines replacing people and putting those human beings out in their jobs.
• Technical Limitation: Current technology is not able to automate all the favored responsibilities.
• Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated gadget may additionally have limited stage of intelligence, hence it’s far most likely susceptible to dedicate error.
• Unpredictable development costs: The studies and development value of automating a manner may exceed the cost stored via the automation itself.
• High initial value: The automation of a new product or plant requires a large initial funding in comparison with the unit cost of the product, despite the fact that the price of automation is spread in many product batches of things
Explanation Of Relays And Contactors
The illustration of relays and contactors in the electrical circuit diagram is identical, as their running principle.
I. Relays are used to transfer noticeably small output and modern-day.
Ii. Ii. Contactor to switch fairly big output and currents.
1.2.1 Relays
a) Definition Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch/electromagnetically actuated transfer. Current flowing thru the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which pulls a lever and modifications the transfer contacts. The coil current can be ON or OFF so relays have transfer positions and most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts .
B) Types of Relays
Relays are usuallly SPDT (Single Pole Double Throw) or DPDT (Double Pole Double Throw) but they can have many greater units of transfer contacts.
Poles : the number of units of contacts
Throw : The range of positions or combinations (open or close) the contacts have. A simple electromagnetic relay includes a coil of twine wrapped around a smooth iron core , an iron yoke which presents a low reluctance course for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or extra sets of contacts. The armature is hinged to the yoke and robotically linked to 1 or extra sets of moving contacts. It is held in location through a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there’s an air gap inside the magnetic circuit. When an electric contemporary is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic discipline that activates the armature, and the consequent motion of the movable touch(s) both makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a hard and fast touch. If the set of contacts become closed while the relay changed into de-energized, then the motion opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the cutting-edge to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by means of a pressure, approximately half as strong as the magnetic pressure, to its comfortable position. Usually this force is furnished by means of a spring, but gravity is also used normally in industrial motor starters. Most relays are synthetic to operate quickly. In a low-voltage utility this reduces noise; in a excessive voltage or current utility it reduces arcing.

Operating Principle:
• This circuit can be used to govern site visitors in public places, or to demonstrate visitors regulations in site visitors-parks.
• IC2, which is coronary heart of the circuit, is a decade counter. In this counter for every pulse fed to pin-14, ability keeps shifting from D1 to D9 in cyclic order.
• IC1 is used as a pulse generator and generates pulses in normal configurable intervals. These intervals may be changed with the aid of varying VR1.
• The circuit is designed in such a way that out of 9 pulses, relay RL1 remains caused for four pulses, relay RL2 for 1 pulse and relay RL3 for remaining four pulses. Since D1-D4 provide contemporary to T1, T1 is on on every occasion there may be capability on any diode D1 to D4, which maintains relay RL1 induced. Similarly other diodes are answerable for RL2 and RL3 triggering.
• Red, Yellow and Green lamps can be linked to the relays RL1, RL2 and RL3 respectively to finish your mini visitors light controller

) Definition Contactor
A relay which can manage the high energy required (better current rating) to directly manipulate an electric motor or different loads is referred to as a contactor. A contactor is an electrically managed switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with better present day ratings. Contactors are used to govern electric powered motors, lighting, heating, capacitor banks, and different electrical masses.
B) Basic Component Of Contactor: A contactor has three components. The contacts are the current carrying part of the contactor. This includes electricity contacts, auxiliary contacts, and contact springs. The electromagnet provides the driving force to close the contacts. The enclosure is a frame housing the contact and the electromagnet.

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