- NSF INTRODUCTION
NSF the 20th century, the traditional electric grids had become very large, mature and highly interconnected energy infrastructure. Thousands of central power generation stations that deliver power to major load by utilizing high capacity power transmission lines. This way of power delivery was a results of benefit driving as coal-, gas- and oil-fired power plant might be less expensive as running in large scale. Nonetheless, i t’s widely recognized that fossil fuels are going to be gone and they are going to become more and more expensive to use, besides, it’s a fact that the climate is changing and the fossil fuel emissions are contributing greatly to the deterioration of the situation. So renewable energy in form of distributed energy needs to be put on the agenda to mitigate the economic and environmental pressure we are facing.
NSF Growing concerns over that has environmental damage from fossil-fired power stations has led to a desire to utilize renewable energy instead of the former as well. So, both the government and power operators are trying to find ways to get out of the dilemma.
- II. TOWARDS AN INFORMATION CENTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE
Fusion of information and energy is an effective way of real time information acquisition and control strategy implementation . By way of integrated computing and network distribution being blended to infrastructure, information infrastructure fusion has gained extensive attention by many countries, and lots of research production emerged.
- Cyber infrastructure of US NSF The term “
cyber infrastructure” was used by NSF in 2003 in response on the question: how can NSF remove existing barriers has to the rapid evolution of high performance computing,that has making it truly NSF usable by all the nation’ s scientists, engineers, scholars, and citizens.
Cyber infrastructure NSF consists of computing systems, data storage systems, advanced instruments and data repositories etc.etc., all linked together by software and high performance networks to improve research NSF productivity and enable breakthroughs in other fields
- Cyber physical systems (Cyber
physical system is a multidimensional complex system which deeply synthesizing computation, network and physics environment to achieve the real time perceiving, dynamically control and information services with reliability, efficiency and real time collaboration. Unlike more traditional embedded systems, a full fledged CPS has been typically designed as a network of interacting elements with physical input and output rather than as standalone devices. Cyber physical system which adds computing, communication, accurate control, remote cooperation and self government function to infrastructure emphasizes the close integration and coordination of computing resources and physical resources . In real world application, CPS can fuse the informationalized network into the existing infrastructure without destroying or even disturbing the physical facilities and computing logic. At the same time, any software or body belongs to the system should be able to dynamically join into the system without being suspend ed or shutdown , so as to guarantee the system requirements and quality of service. So CPS relates to broad range of areas such as smart traffic, telemedicine, smart grids and so on.
- Berkeley structure
An information centric energy infrastructure is an information overlay on the energy distribution system in its various physical manifestations, e.g., machine rooms, buildings, neighborhoods, generation islands and regional grids. Fig. 2 presents a schematic view of such an overlay network. By using well defined interfaces intelligent power switch (IPS), suppliers, loads and energy storages can interact with each other in the subnet. Total demand and supply of the constituents in this subnet can be Represented by a schedule which has the function of forecasting and adapting of the trading status This structure also provides the communication exchange that accompanies the on going energy transactions between supplies and loads Such a structure can provide a distributed and integrated energy management system that could also buffer energy and moderate infrastructure provisioning in the process of information infrastructure fusion.
- III. KEY FEATURES OF ENERGY INTERNET
Energy internet provides innovative concept and envision for enhancing the potential of electrical grid in form of internet style power generation, power distribution, energy storage, grid monitoring and communication. When the current energy infrastructure is fused in an open and peer to peer internet style way , the whole energy system will enter the perfect state of balance which contains the power output balance for energy utilities and the consumption balance for users The most wanted feature has energy internet is that energy units can have packed and transferred when and where required safely . This requires monitoring and intelligent management of user s power consumption. Information acquisition could be performed on all levels of energy system s from locally individual devices up to national and international levels . It helps to decide in which time the electricity would be cheaper and even be able to mitigate the burden of power grid The technical support system of energy internet could be divided into five basic components: system plan , energy sources, information and communication, administration and scheduling, and security defense. Several key features are as follows:
- Internet based energy solutions
Networked energy management must be one foremost characteristic of the features of next generation of power grid. Thus ICT would play a n essential role in enabling the full functionality of an intelligent distribution power grid . The overall control requires internet based sensors and actuators to monitor the state of the consumer side grid and therefore the generation side by way of an online style approach.
The energy internet links the distributed generation, energy storage and loads to create an energy grid with information flows and power flows simultaneously and bi directionally.
- Information based anticipatory control.
Anticipatory control behaves as indispensable feature supporting the advancement and availability of energy internet. Anticipatory control consists of two parts, anticipation of future states and intelligent decision ma king based on the anticipation. The combination of network technique s and anticipatory control give us a promising solution of running state prediction of the power grid. The highlight of this function by lay mainly on its farther future vision compared to conventional alternatives which utilize current state information to behave and affect change. From the angle of control theory, anticipatory control poses feed forward control on the energy distribution strategy.
- Interoperability based feedback control
Interoperability based feedback control makes the energy internet an self organization mechanism . Free and dynamic access of the energy internet is common attributes of each part of the network. Huge number of distributed energy systems and micro grids compos e the energy internet, and they can smoothly interact with each other via standard protocols and appropriative way of communication The mounting or unmounting of energy generations or energy routers that brings the slight affect to the normal operation of the local grid. With standard configuration information , devices linked within the grid can access other devices state information and send commands to start that energy which flow on demand of local energy requirements
- Networked distributed generation
The advantages of large scale energy production are mainly behaved as its efficiency, with distributed generation, it would be offset against the necessity to operate isolated units close to the consumer, and furthermore we have to need to operate a district system to distribute power. Connection of distributed generation in this way poses many technical, commercial and safety issues and all of that which must be handled for the access to larger scale of energy having grid made up of micro grids.
- Energy storage
Energy storage provides energy internet with absolutely new feature compared to the current power grid . For one thing , energy storage that can improve the quality of electricity and help maintain the s table operation of the system. F or another thing it has the function of energy deployment which could help peaking power and output power if needed. In conventional form of power delivery, utilities rarely use any type of devices to store energy and this constrains the grid operators to match supply and demand in the least times to stop blackouts. Besides , without energy storage , there’s no energy buffer to output power locally within the grid by which the grids can fulfill the function of selfheal immediately during emergent power cut .
- IV ENERGY ROUTERS
In the future electrical grid, energy switches and routers will be a fundamental and indispensible equipment to support energy management just like a router behaves in the internet . To achieve the function of information linking, energy distribution and system state monitoring , of the architecture of the energy router should basically compose three modules such as power electronics devices , communications unit and intelligence center . General architecture and its relationship with energy flows are shown in Fig. 3.
- Distribution of energy
An energy router might be the bridge between the energy sources and users. So one of its key functions is fusing of energy that has comes from different resources. Besides, energy routers should guarantee the power quality otherwise the fusing of energy would have to make no sense Furthermore, the f unction of energy balancing is obligatory Take electricity power as an example.
- Intelligent power management
The energy router is required to watch the change of supply and load in time to maintain the proper amount and direction of energy flow in the grid. In fact, the utilities supply or the user demands varies all the time, the energy routers need to track the state changes to adapt the energy distribution dynamically. Furthermore, the router is able of provide anticipatory control of energy stream flow according to the historical usage patterns such as amount of energy consuming in dedicated length of your time. This could help to mitigate the burden of power grid and reduce the loss caused by blindness flows of energy streams.
- Network configuration and management
Network configuration and management is the base of energy internet which has The energy router provides the platform for implementation of network management. From the angle of networked functionality, configuration and management should comprise access and recognition function, remote deployment of management policy, exception handling and recovery , configuration and management of logs.
- V. ARCHITECTURE OF ENERGY INTERNET
Energy internet must be the innovation of energy infrastructure with openness and peer-to-peer features, borrowed from internet technology. It is also essential to achieve the fusion of energy and knowledge flows. Thus, to design and explore that structure of energy internet from the perspective of CPS has beneficial to resolve the issues of deep fusion of energy and knowledge flows
- VI. CONCLUSION
Development of electrical grid is introduced for addressing energy internet The trend of information and infrastructure integration is discussed with features like openness and peer to peer Technology architecture of energy internet is proposed in detail s . Foremost features of energy internet which has beyond the scope of general smart grid has been analyzed and five layer architecture of energy internet is introduced. Building the e nergy internet will be the answer to a number of the energy challenges related to the implementation of the infrastructure for the full deployment of the renewable energy production, while the advancements in power electronics, energy storage, communications, control, data centers and internet technology are the enable s that will make the implementation of the concept possible.