Distributed Energy Systems

Local  Distribute energy management and markets for inexhaustible energy automation are frequently expanding. The market growth is ensured, for example, by international and EU policies for renewable energy generation, the EU directives for in-creasing competition within the electricity industry, and the rising prices of fossil fuels. Local energy manufacturing increases energy efficiency because of lower transport or transfer losses. Local energy manufacturing also development local business and energy manufacturing from local waste cut down waste administration costs, thus permissive other local trade and local employment. Local energy construction also increases energy, electricity, and fuel security by reducing import dependency. Connecting together different technologies can form a strong hybrid solution adapted to local needs. Here the technologies pertain and work in symbiosis supporting each other so that, in some caisson, waste from one process is raw material or fuel for another. By combining the technological explanation for local needs, high primary energy adaptability can be achieved, thereby establish that local energy management potentiality is fully realized. Possibilities and new solutions based on energy saving and the use of local energy sources were studied in a single-family house. The annual energy consumption of space heating and airing in the climate of Southern Finland is approximately 50 kWh/m2 calculated per floor area. With an extremely well-insulated envelope and effective heat recovery from exhaust air, it is possible to achieve the passive house level of 15 kWh/m2. However, this is an expensive way because usually, improvements in HVAC systems are more cost-effective than constantly improving the thermal insulation of the envelope from the Finnish reference values of the year 2012. The net-zero energy level is difficult to reach because of the heating of hot water if you do not also build a solar heating system for heating or a warm wastewater recovery system. A ground heat pump system offers a probability to reduce the electricity utilization of heating, including also the heating of hot water, of a new single-family house to the level of 30–40 kWh/m2. With a coating air heat pump and solar water heating, the reciprocal energy expenditure is 35–60 kWh/m2. The net-zero-energy building culminates in lower substantial impacts than the other cases (district heating and electricity) in all other environmental impact categories except for eutrophication impacts. The high eutrophication impacts are caused by the high phosphorus emissions resulting from the solar panel manufacturing. In the other impacts considered, those caused by the net-zero energy house were only relatively. 50% or less of those caused by the other two cases. The difference between Cases 2 and 3 was very small, although impacts were caused by different processes in the two cases. The cost-efficiency of the quota studied, investment cost/annual energy saving, is 0.4–4.8 €/kWh. Commonly the investments in heating and heat recovery 4 devices are the most auspicious ones. Effective and cheap seasonal heat storage is required for good utilization of solar heating. It is shown by simulations that district heating systems fed by solar heating do not need short-time heat storage. The heat organization itself has enough quantity for heat-storing. The Desy-model was developed in the project. The model can simulate buildings physics and the HVAC system. Area heating networks, distributed heat production in the buildings, and concentrated heat production connected to the network (solar, wind, boiler plants, and CHP plants with many fuels and energy storage) are included in the model. It seems that appropriated energy management is cost-effective if you can use all the energy yourself and the pay-back time of investment is less than 6–10 years

Background to distributed energy systems EU countries have agreed in the energy and climate package to increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020, utilization of renewable energy sources to 20% of total expenditure, and reduce the Commission load by 20% from the 1990 level. By 2050 the emission reduction target is even more challenging: 60–80% of the1990 level. All EU Member States, including Finland, have introduced feed-in-tariffs and other subsidies for renewable energy generation. Finally, the key objectives of the ECU Union’s Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-plan, November 2007) are to lower the value of unpolluted energy and to place the EU industry at the forefront of low carbon technology. Distribute energy management and markets of renewable energy automation are continually expanding. The market growth is ensured, for instance, by international and EU policies for renewable energy generation, the EU directives for increasing competition within the electricity industry, and therefore the rising prices of fossil fuels. Residential energy management increases energy competence due to lower transport or transfer losses. Residential energy management also increases local business and energy production from local waste and reduces waste management costs, thus promoting other local businesses and native employment. Residential energy management also increases energy, electricity, and fuel security by reducing import dependency. Combining together different technologies can form a robust hybrid solution adapted to local needs. Here the technologies interconnect and add symbiosis, supporting one another in order that in some cases waste from one process becomes staple or fuel for an additional. Many technologies operate the side-flows or waste from other processes and supply-side benefits like for instance reducing nutrient runoff or capturing carbon. By combining the correct techno-logical solutions for local needs, high primary energy efficiency can be achieved, thereby ensuring that local energy production potential is fully realized. Although there are many technologies in situ that enable local production of energy and efficient use of energy or energy production from local sources, there are still great challenges for larger market penetration of distributed energy-production systems

Hybrid energy explanation for buildings and building areas handles efficient energy use of buildings e.g. by utilizing good thermal insulation and tightness of the envelope and efficient heat recovery from exhaust air. In summertime solar shading and night ventilation solutions are important. The main elements of hybrid Energy Solutions are various heat pumps, solar power, energy storage, and native district heating. In order to combine these optimal solutions cost or multi-criteria optimization can be used.

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