PROGRESSIVE controled smart grids

This module examines the kinds of DSM measures which will reduce energy demand for the end-user, which will manage and control loads from the utility side, and that can convert unsustainable energy practices into more efficient and sustainable energy use. The module includes a review of housekeeping and preventative maintenance, two of the only and best ways of reducing demand, and discusses the marketing of DSM programs. a number of the challenges that face the implementation of DSM programs also are examined. Demand-side management (DSM) has been traditionally seen as a way of reducing peak electricity demand in order that utilities can delay building further capacity. In fact, by reducing the general load on an electricity network, DSM has various beneficial effects, including mitigating electrical system emergencies, reducing the number of collapses and expanding system trustworthiness. Possible benefits also can include reducing dependency on expensive imports of fuel, reducing energy demand, and reducing harmful emissions to the habitat. Finally, DSM features a major role to play in deferring high investments in generation, transmission and distribution networks. Thus DSM applied to electricity systems provides significant economic, reliability and environmental benefits. When DSM is applied to the consumption of energy in general—not just electricity but fuels of all types—it also can bring significant cost benefits to energy users (and corresponding reductions in emissions). Opportunities for reducing energy demand are numerous altogether sectors and lots of are low-cost, or maybe no cost, items that the majority enterprises or individuals could adopt within the short term if good energy management is practised.

This module examines the kinds of DSM measures which will reduce energy demand for the end-user, which will manage and control loads from the utility side, and that can convert unsustainable energy practices into more efficient and sustainable energy use. The module includes a review of housekeeping and preventative maintenance, two of the only and best ways of reducing demand, and discusses the marketing of DSM programs. a number of the challenges that face the implementation of DSM programs also are examined. To recommend the perception of demandz-side authority for residentiary, commercial and industrial energy users. to offer a summary of the various sorts of demand-side measures. to point out how housekeeping and preventative maintenance in commerce and industry are often wont to reduce energy demand. to explain energy auditing and routine data collection and monitoring, and to indicate their benefits.to stipulate information dissemination on demand-side management. to supply an summary of the main implementation challenges for DSM programmes.

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INTRODUCTION

There is automation that assists with the adaptability of wood fuel cooking, such as improved cookstoves. However, within the United Republic of Tanzania, as in many other sub-Saharan countries, the bulk of rural people are poor and since they can collect firewood for free of charge, they can’t be easily motivated to get improved stoves. Improved stoves for rural applications must therefore utilize cheap and innovative clay stove technologies to stay costs as low as possible. This component mask “demand-side administration” or DSM, as applied to energy competence part that modifies or diminish end-users’ energy demand. This has traditionally been applied to electricity loads but is additionally used for changes that can be made to demands for all kinds of energy. the advantages for the energy user are reduced energy costs for a given output (production level or another measure of activity). For the energy provider, the benefit may be a better use of its supply capacity.

From a utility point of view, it might seem that a wise business approach would be the promotion of consumption thereby increasing sales. this is able to be true if there have been a more than capable and revenues were the sole important factor in an energy supply system. However, increased revenues don’t translate necessarily in higher profits and in some situations, least-cost planning threaten would/could prove the exertion of DSM measures to be more profitable than investing in new generating capacity. Utilities might, therefore, be better advised to market DSM and energy saving. From an environmental perspective, a decrease in energy demand thanks to improved efficiency reduces the environmental impact of energy consumption related to a specific level of production or other activity. during this respect, promoting DSM can thus enhance the general public image of a utility company. Most of the literature and case studies concerning DSM are linked to electrical demand as a results of programmes found out by utilities and governments and thus this module concentrates on electrical DSM programmes. 

However, in Africa, where a modest percentage of the population have access to utility generated electricity, it’s also necessary to think about DSM in reference to other energy resources—on perhaps an area level. Here a crucial resource is biomass in the form of lumber for space heating and cooking. during this scenario, the availability and demand is usually met by an equivalent person and hence self-regulating the one bearing the load of wood searching and collection will definitely manage the demand and use the availability of wood efficiently as far as their energy use methods technologies allow e.g. stove types. (Lugano Wilson, 2006) and knowledge must be made available to end-users to explain how using an improved cookstove can save them time (collecting firewood) and/or money (if they buy their wood). Having said this, this module focuses principally on the opportunities for applying DSM principles to industrial and commercial enterprises. Improved energy management can reduce fuel consumption for small or no investment in many cases and this might contribute to lower imports of fuels that are costly and in abbreviated inventory, therefore increasing the cost-capability and competitiveness of industries and businesses.

Various reasons are suggested for promoting or undertaking DSM. for instance, DSM could also be aimed toward addressing the subsequent issues Cost reduction—many DSM and energy efficiency efforts are introduced in the context of integrated resource planning and aimed toward reducing total costs of meeting energy demand;  Environmental and social improvement—energy efficiency and DSM could also be pursued to realize environmental and/or social goals by reducing energy use, leading to reduced greenhouse emission emissions. Reliability and network issues—ameliorating and/or averting problems within the electricity network through reducing demand in ways which maintain a system reliability within the immediate term and over the long run defer the necessity for network augmentation.

Improved markets short-term responses to electricity market conditions (“demand response”), particularly by reducing load during times of high display appraise caused by diminished generation or network capacity. An energy customer may have many reasons for choosing a particular DSM activity. customarily, these would be commercial, environmental, marketing or regulatory. The above points are expressed during a slightly different way (Satish Saini, 2004), where it is argued that the advantages of DSM to consumers, enterprises, utilities and society is often realized through. Reductions in customer energy bills; Reductions within the need For brand spanking new power station, transmission and distribution networks; Stimulation of economic development; Creation of long-term jobs thanks to new innovations and technologies; Increases within the competitiveness of local enterprises; Reduction in air pollution; Reduced dependency on foreign energy sources;

  The motivation behind the implementation of DSM is clearly different for the various parties involved. so for service association, the reduction or shift of a customer’s energy insistence could mean dodge or delay building additional generating capacity. In some situations, this is able to avoid or defer energy price increases that might rather be imposed on customers to assist in finance new investments in system capacity. for patrons. within the case of industrial customers, this is able to translate to lower production costs and a more competitive product. For domestic customers, it means they might save money that would be spent on other household commodities. DSM was started with the main target strongly on electricity systems. There was a primary the wave of DSM activity in California within the late 1970s as a part of the response to rising oil prices (cost motivation) and increasing public hostility to new power stations (environmental motivation). However, the initiative began to develop in earnest within us within the early 1980s, within the context of integrated resource planning where the stress was on reducing total costs.

Network constraints are getting a drag in both developed and developing becoming inadequate. for instance, air-con may be a major growth area in many countries. In many situations, network-driven DSM can delay the necessity for network expansion and augmentation. Sometimes network-driven DSM may even be ready to eliminate cost-effectively the need to create a large-scale distribution network: this might be particularly useful in many developing countries where extensive distribution networks don’t exist. Although experience so far with this sort of DSM is restricted, network-driven DSM may offer the scope for significant savings in costs within the future (University of Warwick, REEEP, 2005).

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Distribution
Distribution

Most DSM measures are put in situ by utilities or by the energy end-users themselves—typically industrial enterprises. Utilities attempt to encourage energy users to alter their demand profile, and this is often generally accomplished through positive will reduce their energy costs. This successively helps the utilities by moving the demand faraway from the height period. In some cases, negative incentives (penalties) are charged for the continued operation of inefficient equipment with unnecessarily high loads: this is often intended to encourage customers to upgrade equipment and thereby reduce electrical demand. Industrial enterprises will normally consider a good range of possible actions to reduce the consumption of all kinds of energy. an easy reduction in a different time might reduce costs if an appropriate tariff is out there. The main sorts of DSM activities could also be classified into three categories: Energy reduction programmes—reducing demand through more efficient, processes, buildings or equipment; Load management programmes—changing the load pattern and inspiring less demand at peak times and peak rates; Load growth and conservation emissions programmes

CONCLUSION

DSM in its various forms is a crucial tool for enabling a more efficient use of the energy resources available to a rustic . for instance, DSM applied to electrical systems can mitigate electrical system emergencies, minimize blackouts (some countries), reduce energy prices, provide relief to the facility grid and generation plants, defer investments in generation, transmission and distribution networks and contribute to lower environmental emissions. Demand-side management (DSM) has been traditionally seen as a way of reducing peak electricity demand in order that utilities can delay building further capacity. In fact, by reducing the general load on an electricity network, DSM has various beneficial effects, including mitigating electrical system emergencies, reducing the number of collapses and expanding system trustworthiness. Possible benefits also can include reducing dependency on expensive imports of fuel, reducing energy demand, and reducing harmful emissions to the habitat. Finally, DSM features a major role emissions to play in deferring high investments in generation, transmission and distribution networks. Thus DSM applied to electricity systems provides significant economic, reliability and environmental benefits. When DSM is applied to the consumption of energy in general—not just electricity but fuels of all types—it also can bring significant cost benefits to energy users (and corresponding reductions in emissions). Opportunities for reducing energy demand are numerous altogether sectors and lots of are low-cost, or maybe no cost, items that the majority enterprises or individuals could adopt within the short term if good energy management is practised.

This module examines the kinds of DSM measures which will reduce energy demand for the end-user, which will manage and control loads from the utility side, and that can convert unsustainable energy practices into more efficient and sustainable energy use. Similar benefits can be achieved from DSM when applied to the utilization of other sorts of energy. Thus DSM offers significant economic and emissions environmental benefits. Housekeeping emissions and preventive maintenance are simple and cost-effective ways to reduce demand and produce other benefits like process improvement. Opportunities may exist to require advantage of special tariff rates by changing load profiles or entering into contractual agreements with the utilities. it’s therefore important to market DSM programmes to point out potential customers their life cycle benefits and the techniques—often quite simple—for reducing demand.

Prepared By

Abhiraj JPS

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