Distribution System Smart grids concept in electrical Introduction:-
In the last decade, a replacement wave of changes has been happening within the power systems, known under the name smart grids (SG), which has a significant influence on the electrical distribution systems (DS), as well. The strategic goals to be fulfilled under the SG concept are: fulfilling targets of the EU by the year 2020, increasing reliability and security of supply, improving the efficiency of supply, ensuring energy independence, and enabling new technologies (e. g., plug-in electrical vehicles).In order to satisfy the above global goals, future power systems and thus the distribution systems need to enable, among other things, the efficient integration of large-scale intermittent generation of various sizes and technologies (e. g., wind farms, solar thermal generation, photovoltaic, etc.). Furthermore, the change of a distribution network from being “passive” and hooked into a person’s operator’s intervention into an “active” one should be enabled. this is often required thanks to the increasing complexity of network operations, to the wide deployment of distributed generation, and to the increasing challenges in ensuring security and quality of supply. Hence, the SG concept will induce new technologies also as new goals within the distribution system’s design and operation. during this environment, the prevailing business processes within the distribution system need to be changed, i. e. redefined. Detail overview of goals and activities/changes within the relevant business processes in DS which will enable fulfilling the above global goals are presented within the second and third sections. within the fourth section, there’s a summary of activities that are realized thus far within the Power Distribution Company “Elektro Vojvodina” (PDC “Elektro-Vojvodina”) within the course of the event of the SG concept while within the fifth section, the stress is on key elements for successful SG implementation within the distribution companies.
The main goals of smart grids in circulation systems:-
The main goals of smart grids concept within the distribution systems, which can enable fulfilling of the above mentioned global goals, To integrate distribution generators (e. g., renewables) of various sizes and technologies within the DS Integration of distribution generators (DG) of all sizes and technologies (photovoltaic, wind power, small hydroelectric generation, biomass generation, etc.) should be enabled within the medium and low voltage distribution networks so on make sure the maximal production of electrical energy from those resources. To optimize transaction and usage of distribution network groundwork Decreasing peak loads, adjourn capital investments (building new elements and/or upgrading existing elements), and reducing power and energy losses should be enabled by using:– SG components, like DG, energy storages (ES), microgrids, plug-in electrical vehicles (PEV), AMI systems, smart appliances in households/commercial, home area network (HAN), smart sensors, etc.,– new/advanced tools for managing distribution networks – advanced distribution management systems (DMS), and– additionally, improvement of asset management and particularly maintenance strategies should be enabled by using higher volume and quality of knowledge gathered through SG components – AMI systems, smart sensors, intelligent electronic devices (IED). to supply consumers with better information and options for the selection of supply and to permit them to play a neighborhood in optimizing the system’s operations active influence of consumers on the operation of distribution networks should be enabled by allowing consumers easy and versatile change of their load profiles in response to electricity prices and/or to different quite incentives. These demand response competence require advancement tools on the consumers’ side (HAN, smart consumer’s device, consumer’s energy management tools), advanced information and communication tools ready to manage the complexity of multiple inputs, consequent intelligent actions, and provision of easy and versatile interaction between customers and therefore the system. to take care of and improve existing levels of reliability, quality and security of supply within the improvement of reliability, security and quality of supply in DS should be enabled by us-ing SG components, in particular DG, microgrids, AMI systems and demand response (DR), also as advanced information, communication, and software tools. The advanced DMS applications, like OMS (Outage Management System) function and FLISR (Fault Localization, Isolation, and repair Restoration) function, should be enabled so as to permit the upper levels of automation to be implemented within the distribution networks during which the SG components are going to be integrated. The key building blocks (components) of the SG concept in DS are presented. Presented components and their interrelations will enable fulfilling of the SG goals through (re)defining key business processes within the DS. These processes are discussed in additional detail within the next section.
(Re)defining business processes in distribution systems within the SG environment key elements and priority components that ought to be (re)defined in relevant business processes within the DS is given within the sequel. Development planning of distribution networks Define forecasting tools that take into consideration the increasing level of uncertainties associated with future load/production growth and better volume and quality of knowledge gathered through SG components (e. g., AMI systems, smart sensors). Define multi-objective approaches and models for (optimal) multi-year development planning of distribution networks that take under consideration possible influence of DG, DR, PEV, and microgrids, also as different levels of uncertainties associated with loading growth and intermittent generation. Define network element characteristics (e. g., switchgear characteristics) within the presence of DG. Distribution network operations in normal conditions Define objectives and approaches (e. g., centralized, distributed, combined) to voltage-reactive control in distribution networks for various levels of DG penetration.
It is important to stress again that proposed key elements and priority components should be (re)defined within the key business process within the DS in order that the fulfillment of previously stated main goals of the SG concept is ensured. so as to enable the mixing of the above-mentioned SG elements and components within the DS, it’s necessary, to define and realize base components of the SG concept: information and communication infrastructure. The key elements that ought to be defined within these components within the SG environment are given below.
The full implementation of the SG concept will cause significant changes within the DS and thus in key business processes in distribution companies. so as to enable the successful implementation of efficient, economical, and sustainable SG solutions within the distribution company. the following steps should be accomplished: Clear definition of the SG strategy in the distribution company, Consideration of all costs and benefits related to different SG alternatives. Organizational structure for promoting and coordinating all SG activities. Education and increasing employees’ skills.Promotion of the SG solution to all stakeholders (end-users).