DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION

Automation ETAP eSCADA™ may be a model-driven electrical SCADA platform that gives a real-time monitoring and control software applications integrated with data acquisition and control hardware to supply intuitive visualization and analyses via intelligent graphical interface , one-line diagram, geospatial view, and digital dashboards.

Model-driven electrical SCADA means the inherent integration of SCADA platform with the state-of-the-art ETAP power grid analytical applications to supply intelligent situational awareness and diagnostics. ETAP Situational Intelligent (SI) predicts system behavior in response to operator actions and events while proactively recommends / implements decisions to enhance operations.

Distribution automation is that the process by which the gathering of knowledge is automated and analyzed, then controls executed by Utilities.

Distribution automation may be a bit of a misnomer because it implies a closed-loop system . actually , most operators will want to ascertain the analysis, check out the proposed control scheme and validate that no workers are on the lines, ensure they don’t have construction within the area, interpret the info during a way that might typically are wiped out the past through a more manual process. So it’ll take quite a while before a utility is fully comfortable with the thought of hands-free automation within the way that we tend to consider automation.

If you think that about the distribution system as an entire , it’s typically unmonitored. It’s considerably a physical system. It’s an electrical and a system at its root. Most distribution systems haven’t any intelligence or logic. they need very fixed transformers that aren’t necessarily even variable in terms of voltage control.

The ability to use technology to watch the physical world isn’t just distribution automation, but also the method of a sensible grid and smart control.

For example, when there’s an outage, there’s an instantaneous indication within the system that current is not any longer flowing. this will be determined by factors like heat as there’s a persistent heat at every physical connection of a wire. that’s typically interface loss, loss that happens at that time of interconnect. That loss stops when there’s no current flow. If heat is monitored, it are often determined if current is flowing or not. This information are often relayed over radio that states, “The current isn’t flowing.”

More sophisticated and intelligent devices like RTUs are often used, that have physical connections that monitor voltage, current, phase and may internally calculate things like the reactants on the road or the Volt/VAR relationship. RTUs also can monitor power quality to work out if there’s an excessive amount of jitter on a line which will create false alarms within the system. Managing the jitter, voltage, current and phase are all key aspects of automation and improving overall grid stability and reliability.

One of the key use cases in distribution automation is named “Fault Detection, Isolation, and repair Restoration.” Automated service restoration involves the mixture of monitoring the network, detecting an outage, and making switching commands that isolate the fault and permit restoration of service to the maximum amount of the grid as possible. a number of this process is closed-loop system . It doesn’t actually require a communication network so as to isolate the fault. Typically, a recloser or a switch will recognize high current or over or under voltage conditions and it’ll trip all by itself.

There are schemes built within RTUs and within a number of the intelligence which will then reattempt to shut that connection. If it continues to detect a fault, it’ll open. it’s going to repeat that cycle two or 3 times . Sometimes, that burns a branch off of an influence line or clears a fault from a spread of causes. on the other hand that ability to automatically restore service basically means the size of the impact of an outage is reduced.

Now, it doesn’t necessarily do all that during a fully automated fashion like we expect , but the info collection is fully automated, the power to research the fault is fully automated. However, the choice to revive power to the certain segments of the grid is usually still left to a person’s who can make a person’s decision.

Distribution Automation Deployment within the Smart Grid Investment Grants In 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program—funded with $3.4 billion dollars from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009—to jumpstart modernization of the nation’s electricity system, strengthen cybersecurity, improve interoperability, and collect an unprecedented level of knowledge on smart grid and customer operations. When matched with a further $4.5 billion in industry investment, the 99 SGIG projects invested a complete of $7.9 billion in new smart grid technology and equipment for transmission, distribution, metering, and customer systems (see Figure 1). the massive public and personal investments made under ARRA have accelerated smart grid technology deployments, providing real-world data on technology costs and benefits along side valuable lessons learned and best practices. This report informs electric utilities, policymakers, and other key stakeholders of the qualitative and quantitative impacts, benefits, costs, and lessons learned from SGIG projects that implemented distribution automation (DA). Most SGIG projects began in 2009 and concluded in 2015, making this the ultimate report on DA results from the SGIG program.

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