I. INTRODUCTION : Advance Technic challenges and development
The smart grid has been planned as nationwide network that uses information technology to deliver electricity efficiently, reliably, and securely. It also called as “electricity with brain”, enables as two way communication, two way flows of Energy and information. It has some of attractive features. Unlike the existing grid, smart grids have the capability of self monitoring, self healing, pervasive control and adaptive islanding, enhanced interoperability. The self healing concept briefly given as Schneider. and the interoperability concepts and all of its impact on SG given by Sortomme et al. Smart grid system which has integrates the different form the DER to optimize the Energy as produced and delivered as effectively given by Moreno et al. Conejo et al. talks about as the Demand Response (DR) which enables to peak sharing, Profile shaping with exclusive control and maintenance by keeping an honest power quality. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) given by Hart et al, which makes the greater communication between utility, consumer and operators. Cyber Security controlled communication through many soft technologies like data supervisory control and Energy Management System EMS. The demand profile shaping, peak sharing which optimize the value of generation and also increase the consumers by attractive variation real time pricing technologies. Very important aspect of these integrated renewable / distributed energy resources is it reduces the Carbon Emission (CO2) unlike that of the existing fossil fuel based generating system.
A modern smart gird system which utilizes advance techniques as follows.
(1) Integrated communication. -This includes wired, wireless technologies, fiber optic and radio communication system with its techniques, challenges and developments.
(2) Advanced measuring and sensing system elements and protection system. -This includes different metering, sensing devices with its techniques, challenges and developments.
(3) Improved grid control methods.- This includes DAS, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) etc with its techniques, challenges and developments.
(4) Advance grid components -This includes Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Automatic Metering Reading (AMR) and Energy Management Systems (EMS), DR unit with its techniques, challenges and developments.
(5) Advance interface and decision support. This includes Home Area Network (HAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Meter Data Management Systems (MDMS) by Ibars et al, Electric Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) etc with has techniques, challenges and developments.
Reliability and security of power infrastructures required according to National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) with deduced disruption. Integrated approaches for handling all of the distincts resources and its data’s, valid model required with flexibility in the dynamic conditions. These will ensure reliability and power quality. Improved performance metrics will be derived from utility investments, fast signaling approaches required for good services, both are cost-effective. Accurate system models for different system with legitimate communication protocol and taxonomies to be arrived meld models required for wide range data’s and should be validated. Improve communications required to meet the industries like as, factories, domestic areas etc .wide range of communication needed. Lack in public, utility communication to be reduced. Cost effective optimized solutions models has to be created with referred to a good standard.
PMU with Mutual Information (MI) will enhance the communications of distincts systems to be helpful in DER, DR utility efficiently a self calibrating, discriminating algorithm will be helpful. Fault Diagnosis Schemes (FDS) are used for determining the performance, improvements and deteriorated system and its impact can reduces the outages. Online monitoring scheme for periodic measurements of voltages, current, frequency with a standard database. Robust state estimation algorithms can detect malicious data while monitoring real time system. Multicast protocol control will help demand response, Wide Area Measurement (WAM), Power Line Communication system PLC Barmada, Corripio et al. used for one way communication provides as centralized load control, peak shaving. N.Bressan gives the requirement of wireless sensor communication network HAN includes with zigbee application used for monitoring, home and commercial building automation. Programming Logic Control (PLC) will enables the determination of exact position of faults located on SG network. Supports grid control initiatives as load shedding. AS of Narrow band PLC used for low speed applications like Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) supports communication interfaces. Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) cables used for voice, data, and video transmission from head end or central office to an optical node serving an area . Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line / Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL/DSL) uses twisted pair coaxial cable high speed data communication. Wireless Fidelity Internet (WIFI) using
V. ADVANCED CONTROL METHODS
The Fig.9 shows the advance system and therefore the techniques used, challenges, developments associated with it. The major constraints on control is the ease of access points to gives as a reliable solutions for, there were many methods of deducing the complexity of finding solutions with large number of nodes. Islanding used when a section of the grid loads and DER has to made it being grid-connected to operating independent of the grid. as like Barmada ,Corripio et al. gives bout the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) supervisory controls has integrated features that provide short term load forecasting, advance interface and load management. Fuzzy logic is set of fuzzy theory with its approximate reasoning apart from the classical predicate logic. The program based optimization techniques plays as the major role in minimizing the cost of generation and consumer utilization with a good operable solutions. Convex optimization. , details given by Kallitsis et al. problems are focused have to optimize the cost of utility, generation, delay operation cost. The dynamic programming ,the stochastic approach gives real time solution for time varying systems given by Anderson et al.method which gives the optimal and possible interconnections between load and source points reduce the size of the
problems these methods can legitimately gives good day to day solutions on daily load forecasting. The advance automation of systems that gives us attractive control on integrated communications Substation Automation (SA), Distribution Automation (DA),
Although many advance techniques gives the reliable control on the system and provides ease way of handling issues to the operators there have been many technical challenges always there. the shortage in real-time measurement and visibility of non-generation resources. The lack within the best data handling system with availability of real time and ensured data to form efficient control in system. For modeling and analysis the valuation, poor concentration on modeling methods for load forecasting dynamic pricing, a touch reluctance on the acceptance of results under uncertainty which cause poor decision making. to find the appropriate technologies that has to be used on the utility management system lack in consistency and credibility. There is no specified or consolidated framework that enables a good mapping of resources and theirs need for optimized techniques to meet the interoperability challenges.
A protocol based frame work to work out the simplest method for energy management and control system to be used its been accepted as effective one. More developed technologies to meet an honest optimization dispatch of loads to get a true time business solution with DER. SCADA/EMS Energy Management Systems (EMS) system nowadays gives a secured firewall connection conFiguration between operational and administrative parts for reliable control and utilization of data’s. Sortomme et al. gives about the interoperability concept improves the power of diverse system together to perform co-operative tasks, exchange information effectively. The Common Information Model (CIM) also can be wont to represent the node-break level information ease way of representing off line bus branch model, exchange of data . Insulation Displacement Connector (IDC) based optimal hedging model gives an optimal solution on distribution networks as given by Caldon et al. helps in decision of risk , price supported work load uncertainty. Real time optimization of the two stages of model for calculation of voltages, phase angle variation using Newton Type Algorithm (NTA), Lest Square Approximation (LSA) based on instantaneous power frequency at low sampling rate.
VI. GRID COMPONENTS
The shows the advance gird components and its techniques, challenges and developments associated with it. show as the as management tools and its impact on a management system. Fig.13 shows the increasing utility of the renewable energy syatem resources worldwide. The SG features a massive infrastructure which utilizes number of Energy resources called DER. which applies on disparate technologies as which has its own condition, capacity and interoperability. SG system which meets out the challenges of demand sharing; peak sharing with effective utilization of DER with intelligent optimization techniques features a greater impact on reducing the value of generation, flexible Energy management system. Decentralized agent-based control has greater solutions using Multi Agent System MAS improved viability and capability of smart grid Interoperability concepts increase the coordination of individual systems, effective communications to perform task. DR strategy usefull for load shaping reduces the overloading system given by Chertkov et al. improves the distribution transformer utilization, delays the upgrading of transformers on high EV penetrations. Wide Area Monitoring and system WAMC has to proposed load shedding scheme estimates frequency instability, magnitude of disturbance in real time formulation through dynamic voltage stability criterion with Voltage Stability Risk Index (VSRI). Small Autonomous Hybrid Power Systems (SAHPS) has been uses renewable resources effectively, economically by optimizing size. The digital grid termed has large grids are divided into smaller grids connected asynchronously can accept the no renewable power, cascaded outages, power flows etc.
A complete knowing of regulation and policy impact that on DER , DG technology integration required for getting adequate data’s, quantitative analysis for regulatory practices has a effective impact on economic models and price benefits. Caldon et al. Explained about the Advance system that has required for distribution networks enables real time awareness and provides automated response allows flexibility in operator decision. Centralized and distributed models to be founds for the scaling of important assets, its coordination .the associated challenge is the security and privacy. The deployment of DER to maximise the efficiency and power quality have A level of lack in standard communication and protocol controls accessibility models for analysis. communication, functionality implementing advance technologies to make sure secure communications explained by Bobba et al. at low cost. The data management need an increased concentration with the deployed as like data given by
A tool to reduce the computation by data mining. Given by Chen et al. technique, SAX method to reduce the dimensionality of data base by identifying hidden patterns. By gaming theory of the agent based functional approach both network and Energy markets are often integrated and coordinated by optimally allocating resources. To find out the sizing, as the placement of D.G an improved multi –objective Harmony Search (HS) algorithm used on radial distribution system. a strategy of relay settings on dependability and security performance indices reduce nuisance tripping of large DG A high speed of the area EPS given by IEEE. P2030/D7.0 draft guides can be recloses the disconnected, the islanded DG’s in time called effective island protection. The Low Carbon Zones (LCZ) are set to follow the Decentralized short term changes by DG and centralized long term changes by Sub Station (SS) On Load Tap Changer (OLTC)’s. For future.