Introduction: Advance control method
It is becoming increasingly difficult today to meet our nation’s 21st century power demands with an electric grid built on yesterday’s technologies. A fully modernized grid is essential to provide service that is reliable, secure, cost-effective, efficient, safe, and environmentally responsible. To achieve the modern grid, a wide range of technologies must be developed and implemented. These technologies can be grouped into five key technologies areas has shown in Figure 1 below.
The Advance control method (ACM) featured during this paper comprise one of the five key technology areas that has got to be developed if we are to have a very safe, reliable, and environmentally friendly modern grid. Advance control methods (ACM technology is the device and algorithms which will be, and predict conditions within the fashionable grid and determine and take appropriate corrective actions to eliminate, mitigate, and prevent outages and power quality disturbances. These methods will provide control at the transmission, distribution, and consumer levels and can manage both of the power real and reactive power across state boundaries. To an outsized degree, Advance control method (ACM) technologies believe and contribute to every of the other four key technology areas. For instance, Advance control method (ACM) will have monitor that the useful components (Sensing and Measurements), provide timely and appropriate response (Integrated Communications; Advanced Components), and enable rapid diagnosis (Improved Interfaces and
Decision Support) of any event. Additionally, Advance control method (ACM) also will support market pricing and enhance asset management. The analysis and diagnostic of the usefull functions of future that Advance control method will incorporate predetermined features a expert logic and templates that give “permission” to the grid’s software to required corrective action that can autonomously when these actions fall within the allowable permission sets. As a result, actions that has got to executed in seconds or less won’t be able to delayed has been the time required for human analysis, decision-making, and action. Significant improvement in grid reliability will result thanks to this self-healing feature of the modern grid. Advance control methods (ACM) would be require an integrated, as high-speed communication that has infrastructure and corresponding communication standards to process the vast amount of knowledge needed for these sorts of system analyses. ACM are going to be utilized to support distributed intelligent agents, analytical tools, and operational software applications. This paper covers the following four important topics:
• Current state of Advance control method (ACM)
• Future state of ACM
• Benefits of implementation
• Barriers to deployment
Although it are often read on its own, this paper supports and supplements “A Systems View of the fashionable Grid,” an summary prepared by the Modern Grid Initiative team.
The communication infrastructure supporting today’s control systems consists of a good spectrum of technologies patched together. The required information is transmitted from the sensors to all the control systems, processed by the control systems, and then transmitted to the controlling devices. This current communication infrastructure is just too limited to support the high-speed of requirements and broad coverage needed by Advance control method (ACM), and it does not provides the networked areas, open architecture format necessary
for the continued enhancement and growth of the fashionable grid. Additionally, as of today’s grid lacks many of the smart sensors and control devices including consumer portal devices that require to be deployed to measure the specified data and supply the control mechanisms to manage the electric system. Some progress is being made. DA has technologies are presently is being integrated with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to supply rapid reconfiguration of specific sections of the distribution system. This will minimize the impact of glitches and power quality disturbances on customers. DA provides the power to watch and operate devices that are installed throughout the distribution system, thereby optimizing station loadings and reactive supply, monitoring equipment health, identifying outages, and providing more rapid system restoration. However, this integration needs to happen more quickly and on a much wider scale. Some of today’s ACM technologies are locally based, like at a substation, where the required data often collected in near real time without the necessity for a system-wide communication infrastructure. But these control algorithms act autonomously at area substation level and hence do not benefit from a system-wide perspective. Often, these algorithms are integrated with centralized systems to enable others not located at the substation to have access to the data. Substation automation technologies has been provide this functionality and are in their early phases of implementation at most utilities. Numerous vendors provide modern substation automation technologies today using architectures almost like that shown in Figure 2. ACM technologies depend heavily on data sensing and a few sort of data transmission of as shown(See “Appendix B2: Sensing and Measurement” and “Appendix B1: Integrated Communications”). Today’s sensors that measure system parameters like as (e.g.., watts and watt-hours, VArs and VArhours, volts, amperes, power factor, phase angles, harmonics, etc.) are only beginning to evolve from the traditional electric/electromechanical design to a solid-state, electronic-based technology of upper accuracy, more intelligence, and with the potential to interface with digital communication systems. The widespread deployment of intelligent electronic devices like as(IEDs) at the system, equipment, and consumer levels must occur to support ACM in the future. Significant advances are made in software-based control algorithms in nearly every industry and far has been wiped out the world of ACM. Some of the ACM technologies needed for the fashionable grid are currently available and has in research and development. These technologies has slowly being integrated into the three important areas: Some of the technologies in these areas are described in the three tables which follow.
DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS
DR Intelligent Agents has semi-autonomous control systems has respond rapidly at the local level to unburden centralized control systems and human operators. Several of these agents are often combined to form a multi-agent system with peer-to-peer communication. These multi-agent systems are capable of reaching goals difficult to realize by a private system. Some of these technologies are described in Table 1 below.
The heart of the ACM analytical tools are the software algorithms and therefore the high-speed computers needed to process and analyze the knowledge . This feature may be a key a part of the general ACM control loop. Some of these tools are described in Table 2 below.
The advanced control methods of the longer term require an advanced and integrated communication system to operate effectively (see “Appendix B1: Integrated Communications”). Many control functions are performed today to some degree and in limited locations. ACM significantly more sophisticated area, will consider regional and national perspectives additionally to local ones, and can be fully deployed throughout the national grid. Where appropriate ACM are going to be distributed and where necessary, it will be centralized.
FUNCTIONS ACM WILL PERFORM
within the longer term , low-cost, smart instrument like as transformers, IEDs, and analytical tools will measure system and consumer parameters for every significant datum needed by ACM. New, as low-cost devices will be provide the condition of grid components and can be deployed and integrated with ACM to supply an overall assessment of the system’s condition. These data will be presented has to ACM for analysis on a near real-time basis by an integrated communication system. additionally , phasor measurement units (PMU), integrated with global positioning system GPS time signals will be deployed nationwide to supply a perspective of grid status and an early warning of developing instabilities. Analyze data – the supply of near real-time data for all needed data points, and more powerful processors to research this data, will make possible rapid expansion and advancement in the capability of software based analytical tools.
• State estimators and contingency analyses will performed in seconds instead of minutes, giving ACM and human operators additional time to react to emerging problems. This will also support the utilization of real-time transmission optimization tools.
• Expert systems will convert the info to information which will be used for decision making. This information can then be input into probabilistic risk analyses.
• Load forecasting will cash in of the system-wide distribution of near real-time data also as improved meteorology technologies to supply highly accurate load forecasts at the system, component, and consumer levels.
BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION
The wide acceptance and implementation of the moderngrid’s advancement of control methods will benefit all involved – the power industry, businesses, and industry as well as consumers and society in general. Here are some of the many advantages to be realized:
• the general reliability of the distribution and transmission systems will be generally improved, resulting in decreased costs and increased revenues.
• The self-healing vision for the fashionable Grid are going to be achieved. Appropriate actions will be taken to prevent or minimize adverse consequences. The scope of cascading events are going to be limited to stop wide-area outages.
• Sophisticated analytical capabilities will prevent, detect, and mitigate the consequences of security attacks.
• Integration of consumers like and their loads will provide energy price signals to encourage them to participate in the electricity market based on real supply-and-demand influences. The markets will then be more efficient and the result will be the lowest possible price for electricity.
• Restoration times following major grid events are going to be reduced by the provision of key and timely information and strategies needed by emergency response organizations.
• Transmission congestion are going to be minimized, contributing to further reductions in energy prices and more robust energy markets.
• Supply-side and demand-side conditions will be monitored to identify both of the power emerging and actual power quality issues. Appropriate corrective actions are going to be taken to deal with power quality challenges before they become significant or cause loss of reliability.
• Utilizations of DER and DR has to displace spinning reserve and increase system efficiency will reduce environmental impacts.
• Integration of the real asset utilization data into transmission and delivery (T&D) planning models will aid the design of major long-term investments needed to increase system capacity.
• Providing the bill of material-condition data for assets to condition-based maintenance (CBM) programs will improve the overall health and reliability of assets, reduce their out-of-service times, reduce the value of maintenance, and improve the repair vs. replace decision-making process.
BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT
Significant barriers exist that impede the development and implementation of advanced control methods, but deployment of ACM is important to make sure safe, reliable, clean, economic, and environmentally responsible power in the future. as the moves forward will remain limited until system data are available from a much wider area in near real time and a high-speed communication system is in situ in order that these ACM technologies can act. In addition, faster and more powerful computers are required in order that ACM can respond immediately to rapidly forming power grid events. Another barrier is that the lack of broad consensus for the fashionable grid vision among stakeholders. A greater understanding of the advantages of the fashionable grid – especially its self-healing function and its huge environmental benefits – is lacking. Conflicting objectives among stakeholders impede the complete implementation of those control methods and their integration with other important processes and technologies. For example, the likelihood of reduced revenues to suppliers of electricity impedes the complete utilization and dispatch of consumer DER, much of which is far cleaner than central fossil-based generation. New regulatory models may be a solution to this conflict.
Advanced control methods are technically achievable. The needed software and hardware systems are often developed relatively easily following the development of a comprehensive set of controlsystem specifications. But first the lack of a clear vision, the problem of insufficient data, the absence of a comprehensive communications infrastructure, and the inadequacy of IEDs deployment has must be addressed for ACM has been universally accepted and implemented. In addition, conflicting the objectives among stakeholders must be addressed and answers found to benefit all involved. Development to the clear specifications for ACM and other key technologies is a crucial step in advancing the fashionable grid. Specifications for data acquisition, communication standards, and retrofits of existing components has to convert them to IED functionality, all in support of those ACM technologies, will provide the idea for rapid progress.